In the international trade of goods,due to the complexity of the types of goods,the characteristics of the goods themselves,manufacturing and processing conditions,market trading habits, etc., there are various ways to stipulate the quality of goods.To sum up,it is mainly divided into the following two types:
(1) The method of showing commodity quality with physical samples
The methods of showing commodity quality with physical samples include sale by inspection and sale by sample. Among them,in the transaction based on samples,it can take the seller’s samples as the standard or take the buyer’s samples as the standard, or the counter sample which also named approval sample to confirm the sample transaction.
(2) Express the quality of goods in words
“Buying and selling by words” refers to the method of expressing the quality of goods by words. In the contract, the quality can be stipulated by specifications or standards.
In international trade, sometimes technical parameters or specifications alone are not enough to fully express the nature or characteristics of commodities, but samples are needed as reference.
Sample is a small amount of physical objects that can represent the quality of goods.It is either extracted from the whole batch of goods as a model for external display and required for product quality inspection; Or before mass production,it is produced and processed by producers according to commodity design and the standard of samples produced is taken as the delivery standard of commodities in trading.As a display of commodity quality,samples represent the universal quality of similar commodities,including physical characteristics,chemical composition,mechanical properties,appearance,structural characteristics,color,size,taste and so on.
Generally,for the confirmation of a trade order,the buyer needs the supplier to prepare samples at least twice,one is the pre-production sample and the other is the approved sample.In many cases,it is necessary to prepare production sample for clients when the order production is completed or in the middle of production.
Samples are confirmed by client before production,which can be made with details after confirmation and also similar products used to confirm quality for clients.
Samples confirmed by clients,the bulk production shall be carried out completely according to the approval sample.Under normal circumstances,when doing approval samples,at least two or more should be done.One will be sent to the client for confirmation and the other will be kept in the sample room of the company.Once the client confirms it,he will make a big deal according to the samples in his hand.
Once the client places a repeat order,it can be compared.
Generally,it is the approval sample made according to the client’s requirements without a mold. Once confirmed,the bulk product will make a formal mold according to the approval sample and complete the production.
1.Samples represent the details of the order.After confirming the order,importers and suppliers will reconfirm these styles,materials and processes through samples.This confirmation process sometimes even takes one or two months,so sometimes it is necessary to urge suppliers to provide samples as soon as possible.
2.Cost and quantity of samples
3.Number of samples:The number of approval samples is at least ≧3. Generally,suppliers and buyers should keep one.If necessary,another one will be sent to a third-party inspection company as a reference for samples during inspection.
4.Sample sending process:
5.Sample analysis: After receiving the sample,the importer can confirm the function,appearance and process of the product.If it is found that the sample does not achieve the expected effect,it can ask the factory to change the materials and improve the process level.
6.Sample confirmation signature.If the client confirms the sample,it is best to add the client’s mark or signature on the approval sample,so as to distinguish it from other samples.CLI has encountered samples sent by clients to the factory without any marks before.After a long time,suppliers can’t confirm which one is the final confirmation.If the sample is randomly selected from the bulk goods,it can not provide reference value.
The client provided the design draft to the inspector and informed the supplier would provide sample for reference.When the goods were inspected,the inspector found a diffidence.The bulk goods were consistent with the samples,but there was a slight difference between the LOGO and the design draft.As the samples during inspection were not signed or marked by the importer,the inspector finally mentioned the diffidence in the report.After receiving the report,the client asked the factory to arrange to rework.Instead of sending samples to the client,the supplier sent a simple picture to the client.The client agreed to arrange production based on their trust between them.Although the LOGO is not so obvious,if the client insists that the supplier send samples abroad or take a lot of detailed drawings for the client to confirm,it will be easy to find that the difference in the LOGO.There will not be such batch defects during the production of bulk goods.
This is a lady’s handbag.The client confirmed the sample design and asked the supplier to produce according to the sample.However,the factory ignored an important detail in the production process,which is the position of the handle.Both parties mentioned the material of the bag and the diameter of the handle in the contract, but did not specify the size of the handle position.The client thought that the factory would produce according to the sample completely.However,the factory didn’t think carefully about the size of consumers’ hands when producing bulk goods.It should give people the sense of convenience as much as possible,but only think that the handle can meet the basic needs,without letting workers pay attention to the position of the handle. As a result,the experience of the bulk goods produced is slightly poor,the portable position is relatively narrow.The inspector raised this problem during the inspection.The handle location of bulk goods is different from that of samples.Consumers may easily rub their fingers against the edge of the bag when carrying a bag,so some people may complain because their skin will be hurt.Fortunately, very order of clients requires CLI to arrange pre-shipment inspection and problems are found in time before the products are officially put into the market.The client asked suppliers to arrange to rework to avoid consumer complaints.
From the above two typical cases,importers can personally realize the importance of samples.It is not only the confirmation of the beginning of the order,but also the key to the quality control of the whole order, and even the final inspection needs the sample for reference at the time of final delivery.No matter suppliers, importers or third-party inspectors,they can visually compare samples with bulk goods and get an objective quality result.As an importer, you must hope that the final products will meet the sample standards confirmed by yourselves and pass the quality standards,which can greatly reduce the risk of complaints from consumers. Therefore,when confirming samples with suppliers,importers must carefully check the details of samples. It is best to ask suppliers to provide physical samples and take the samples as the basis for final pre-shipment inspection.
For third-party inspection companies,it is also suggested that importers can provide approval samples, because CLI thinks that the function of approval samples is not only to compare the appearance of products, but also to confirm whether the raw materials of bulk goods or the processes used have achieved the desired effect of clients,which makes the inspection basis more intuitive and detailed.
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